The evolution of mobile communication technology: from the 1G era to 5G The great change of times

Generally speaking, both 1G and 5G belong to a stage of mobile communication technology development, which is constantly updated due to people’s production and life needs (“G” means “generation”). They differ greatly in terms of transmission rate, mobile communication technology, transmission quality and service type, and each follows a different communication protocol. From 1G to 5G, from the first generation to the fifth generation of mobile communication technology to succeed each other, each has its own strengths.

1G era: 1980s – analog system. 1G, the first generation of mobile communication technology, was born in Chicago, USA in the 1980s and was the earliest mobile commercial communication system. The technology uses analog signal transmission, through FM modulation, the voice between 300Hz to 3400Hz converted to high frequency carrier frequency MHz. This analog signal transmission method can only be applied to voice transmission service, and the coverage is small, the signal is unstable, and the voice quality is low. 1G main system is AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System). In the early 1980s, China’s mobile communication industry was still in a blank state until the Sixth National Games in Guangdong in 1987, when the cellular mobile communication system was officially launched, which was the symbol of the beginning of mobile communication in China. In the application area, the “Big Brother” (the big Motorola 8000X) became a “prominent” status symbol in the 1G era. Although these mobile terminals brought convenience in communication, there were many defects in the analog communication system, and serial numbering and number theft often occurred. The world’s first cell phone (Motorola DynaTAC 8000X) In that era, Motorola and Ericsson dominated the A and B networks of mobile communication until 1999, when both networks were officially shut down. 2G era: In 1995, under the guidance of “Chunghwa Telecom”, China officially entered the 2G communication era. At this time, communication technologies were becoming increasingly mature, with GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication), TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access), CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access), etc. (TDMA), CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access), and other data services of different standards have come on the scene. From this generation, digital transmission replaced analog transmission and opened the era of digital network. 2G solved the defects of 1G technology to a certain extent, greatly improved the confidentiality of communication, significantly increased the capacity of the system, and enhanced convenience. The maturity and progress of technology brought about the improvement of communication quality, from then on cell phones could access the Internet (slower, the first cell phone that could access the Internet was Nokia 710), send text messages, and mobile communication began to develop rapidly to the masses. The world’s first cell phone to achieve Internet access (Nokia 710).

3G era: broadband communication after 2009. With the rising demand for mobile network applications, a new generation of mobile communication technology was created, which is 3G based on the new standard system, and mobile communication entered the era of high-speed IP data network. Since then Internet technology has been widely used, mobile high-speed Internet access has become a reality, and various data such as audio, video and multimedia files are transmitted at high speed and in a stable manner through the mobile Internet. CDMA is the technical basis of the third-generation mobile communication system, and there are three mainstream 3G standards in the world: CDMA2000, WCDMA and TDSCDMA, among which WCDMA is the most widely used network standard, which basically meets the requirements of low price, rich services and global roaming.

China issued three 3G licenses on January 7, 2009, namely TD- SCDMA of China Mobile, WCDMA of China Unicom and WCDMA2000 of China Telecom. TD- SCDMA is the third generation mobile communication standard developed by China, which is an important milestone in the history of domestic telecommunication. However, with the advent of the 4G era, its investment and use value are weakening, and its users are gradually transitioning to 4G. At this time, smartphones and tablet PCs supporting 3G networks began to appear, especially the birth of the iphone smartphone, promoting the explosive growth of 3G users, which in turn created an increasingly mature application atmosphere for the emergence of 4G. Apple cell phone first generation.

4G era: Internet communication after 2013. 4G adopts wireless cellular communication protocol, integrating 3G and WLAN, capable of transmitting high-quality video images, and fast (transmission rate of up to 1G under static, high-speed mobile state theoretical rate of up to 100M, 2000 times faster than dial-up Internet), high transmission quality, wide signal coverage, supporting more types of cell phones and Tablet electronic products, is currently being widely used generation, the number of terminals is huge. In December 2013, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) announced the issuance of “LTE/Fourth Generation Digital Cellular Mobile Communication Service (TD-LTE)” operating licenses to three major operators, i.e. 4G licenses, opening the 4G era in China. China’s 4G adopts the self-developed TD-LTE (Time Division Long Term Evolution) network standard, with more than 1.32 million base stations in June 2016, covering a population of more than 1.2 billion, and 4G roaming services with 126 countries and regions, with nearly 430 million customers, making it the largest 4G network system in the world. network system in the world. Xiaomi Mobile

5G era: the 5th generation of mobile communication should be born. With the birth and popularity of AR, VR, IoT and other technologies, 5G was born and is now under active research and development. High speed, low latency, low power consumption, and high reliability are the basic features of 5G communication technology, which is also the goal and expectation of this generation of communication technology. It is expected to be commercially available one after another in 2020. 5G is no longer a single wireless access technology, but an integration of multiple new wireless access technologies and existing 4G technologies, and its application scenarios are very wide. The ITU ( International Telecomunication Union, ITU) classifies 5G application scenarios into two categories: mobile Internet and Internet of Things, supporting massive data transmission, realizing the Internet of everything, and promoting the development of the industrial Internet and other fields.

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