The transformation of teachers’ roles in the context of the Internet generation

Compared with teachers in a traditional single, closed education environment, the vast database resources, human-computer collaboration, and deep learning are unique advantages that teachers have in the era of smart education. Dewey, the American progressive educator, pointed out that education is constantly changing, and if we continue to train today’s students in the same way as yesterday, it is actually the same as depriving them of tomorrow. In the era of smart education, as technology advances, education should also change. In the face of innovation and change in education, the role of teachers needs to be reshaped to respond to the impact and challenges of smart education.

Change from focusing on delivery to focusing on guidance. The subversion of the traditional teaching model in the era of smart education has increased the autonomy of students’ learning, and students can realize independent learning and self-construction to a certain extent. In the face of the change in students’ learning styles, teachers are required to break through the traditional role of transmitter and highlight the role of enlightenment and leadership as the main way. In other words, the diversity and individuality of students’ learning and the increased flexibility of the teaching process urgently require teachers to break away from the “uniform template” and call for teachers who are more focused, flexible, and individualized, and who are “full of educational wisdom”. This is what wisdom education is all about.

For one thing, teachers have changed from being the transmitters of knowledge to being the stimulators of students’ internal motivation for learning. In the traditional education environment, the school is the main place where learning takes place, and teachers take the initiative in the whole learning process, controlling the process of students’ learning and influencing the breadth and depth of students’ learning. In the era of smart education, access to learning opportunities becomes more diversified and diverse, and learning gradually breaks away from the constraints of time and space, realizing that learning can be done anytime and anywhere. Teachers lose control of students’ learning content and process, and students become the helmsmen of their own learning process, and personalized learning becomes the norm. Instead of teaching students knowledge, teachers should shift their focus to guiding and inspiring students, stimulating their interest and desire to learn, and cultivating students’ internal motivation to learn, which become the issues teachers need to seriously consider in the era of smart education. For example, for lower grade students, self-control, self-awareness, persistence, and delayed self-gratification are not fully developed, so how to get students to take the initiative to activate and maintain their learning initiative becomes a top priority for teachers. For advanced students, the development of insight, criticality, and creativity is also an unavoidable issue for wisdom education. The effective stimulation of students’ learning motivation, the timely acquisition of self-efficacy, and the cultivation and transformation of intrinsic interests all require teachers’ spiritual grasp and comprehensive use of smart education technologies such as sensor networks, blockchain, and virtual reality to stimulate and sustain students’ intrinsic learning motivation in the long run, and to guide them to navigate the ocean of knowledge and explore the meaning of life.

Secondly, teachers change from being the dominators of the teaching process to being the guides of the educational process. The main teaching mode in the traditional educational environment is the “lecture and listen” teaching and learning mode. The teacher conveys knowledge to the students through classroom lectures, and the maximum amount of knowledge that students can acquire depends on the measure of the teacher’s knowledge. Therefore, people prefer to compare the teacher in traditional education to a person carrying a bucket of water, who distributes the water of knowledge to his students one cup at a time, and the teacher holds the initiative and absolute authority in this process. In the era of smart education, which is the era of information explosion, classroom teaching can no longer meet the needs of students, who can instantly obtain massive and more targeted information through new intelligent ways such as human-computer collaboration, human-computer integration and super computing, and teachers have lost the advantage of knowledge transfer. In contrast, how students obtain effective information and how they use information to solve problems has become the biggest obstacle to their growth, which requires teachers to guide them to realize “data-driven” learning, enhance students’ information literacy, guide them to effectively obtain and identify information, and improve their ability to distinguish, self-reflect, and intelligently The teacher is more like a teacher in the era of smart education. Teachers in the era of wisdom education are more like “torchbearers” who start the fires of their students by using the embers in their hands to stimulate and unleash their students’ inner wisdom potential and realize the cultivation of wise talents.

From focusing on their own “teaching” to focusing on students’ “learning” change. In traditional education, the initiative of teaching activities is mainly in the hands of teachers, who control the teaching process and set the “learning” by “teaching”. This “teaching”-centered model cannot take into account the different differences of students and often leads to the separation of “teaching” and “learning”. With the advent of the era of smart education, artificial intelligence technology has intervened in the education and teaching process, and the emergence of targeted personalized teaching has triggered a restructuring of the initiative structure of teaching activities, and the initiative of students in the teaching process has been further stimulated, with teachers retreating from the front of the curtain to the back of the curtain and their role changing from focusing on “teaching” to focusing on “learning. The role of teachers has changed from focusing on “teaching” to “learning”.

For one thing, teachers are transformed from monopolists of knowledge learning to managers of learning resources. In the era of smart education, the characteristics of “offshoring and manufacturing” of intelligence have broken the monopoly of intelligence by human beings [18], and the monopoly of knowledge learning by teachers has been broken. The explosion of the quantity of knowledge, the speed of updating, and the complexity and substitutability of the content have made students the active and conscious agents of the learning process. Moreover, the demand for individualized learning in the era of smart education has made it more difficult for teachers to take control of knowledge, and has driven the shift in the focus of teachers’ roles from “teaching” to “learning” for students. For this reason, the “decentralization” of teachers is imperative. Teachers should enhance their consciousness of changing their role from monopolist of knowledge learning to manager of learning resources. On the one hand, teachers should provide students with learning resources based on their individual learning needs and reasonable analysis of student data; on the other hand, they should select “fundamental and cutting-edge” knowledge based on the principle of “adaptability and balance” from the perspective of the value of knowledge. On the other hand, from the perspective of the value of knowledge, we can select “fundamental and cutting-edge” knowledge based on the principle of “adaptability and balance”, and also select “useful” knowledge for students based on the evaluation of the value of the knowledge era, so as to realize the wisdom development of students.

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